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On the morning of December 7, 1941, the U.S. naval base located in Pearl Harbor, Oahu, Hawaii, a territory of the United States, was attacked by the Japanese Imperial Army. A day after, U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt declared war against Japan and entered WWII both in Europe and the Pacific. The attack on Pearl Harbor is also known as the Battle of Pearl Harbor, the Hawaii Operation, and Operation Z.
Prior To War
- War historians believed that the dispute between Japan and the United States had been silent since the 1920s. Tensions began to grow during the 1931 Japanese invasion of Manchuria.
- Japan continued to expand its territories in China known as the “Southern Operation.”
- After the Nanking Massacre in 1937, the International Military Tribunal of the Far East concluded that there were more than 300,000 Chinese who were killed in the massacres. As a response, western nations such as the United Kingdom, the United States, and France supported China for its war supplies through loan assistance.
- In July 1941, the U.S. applied an oil embargo on Japan as a response to possible Japanese aggression in the Far East including the Philippines. However, Japan continued to invade the Dutch East Indies due to its oil resources.
- After series of attempted and failed negotiations, on November 20, 1941, Japan proposed that they withdraw all their forces from Southern Indochina and hold any attacks in Southeast Asia if the United States, United Kingdom, and the Netherlands ceased helping China. The counter-proposal, also known as the Hull Note, was made on November 26.
- However, Japan’s fleet had left for Pearl Harbor a day before the Hull Note was delivered.
- On December 1, 1941, the Pearl Harbor attack was authorized by Emperor Hirohito after his military advisers concluded that the Hull Note would destroy Japan’s control over China and Korea.
- Prior to the attack, the Japanese Imperial Army knew that casualties in Pearl Harbor would be great. They made sure that the timing of the attack would be unexpected.
Pearl Habor Attack
- On November 26, 1941, the Japanese Striking Force composed of six aircraft carriers – Akagi, Kaga, Soryu, Hiryu, Shokaku, and Zuikaku left Hitokappu Bay to attack Pearl Harbor.
- Japan surprisingly attacked Pearl Harbor with 353 aircraft, composed of 79 fighters, 131 dive-bombers, 103 level-bombers, and 40 torpedo planes.
- The two-wave attack on Pearl Harbor lasted 90 minutes. One of the main reasons why Operation Z was made was due to the damage it would cause to the largest naval base of the United States. It would mean easier Japanese control over the Pacific.
- At the time of the attack, the U.S. Pacific Fleet’s aircraft carriers – Enterprise, Lexington and Saratoga were not in the harbor.
- After the attack, 2,335 U.S. military deaths were recorded, most of them sailors/marines. 1,143 U.S. military personnel were wounded, 68 civilians died and 35 civilians wounded, while 64 Japanese were killed.
- Eight U.S. Navy battleships were damaged by the attacks and four of them were sunk. The battle also damaged or destroyed three U.S. cruisers, three destroyers, three other ships, and 188 aircraft. By contrast, Japan only lost 29 aircraft and five submarines in the battle.
- The eight U.S. battleships that were destroyed or damaged were named: Arizona, Oklahoma, West Virginia, California, Nevada, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, and Maryland.
After The Attack:
- On December 8th, 1941, the day after the Battle of Pearl Harbor, the United States declared war on Japan.
- This was their entry into World War II. It was President Franklin D. Roosevelt who declared war on Japan with his famous ‘Infamy Speech’ in front of the Joint Session of Congress.
- Hours after the attack on Pearl Harbor, Japan attacked the Philippines and sunk the U.K.’s battleship Prince Wales and Repulse.
- After the attack on Pearl Harbor, the American servicemen were awarded 15 Medals of Honor, 51 Navy Crosses, 53 Silver Stars, 4 Navy, and Marine Corps Medals, 1 Distinguished
- Flying Cross, 4 Distinguished Service Crosses, 1 Distinguished Service Medal, and 3 Bronze Star Medals.
- Today, there are several memorials on the island of Oahu to honor the people who died at Pearl Harbor.
- December 7th is known as National Pearl Harbor Remembrance Day in America and ceremonies are held around the country to remember what happened on that day.
Pearl Harbor Worksheets
This bundle includes 11 ready-to-use Pearl Harbor worksheets that are perfect for students to learn about The Battle of Pearl Harbor which was a surprise military attack by the Japanese Navy on the Unites States naval base.
This download includes the following worksheets:波多野结衣av高清一区二区三区
- Pearl Harbor Facts
- Mapping Japan’s Invasion
- War Leaders
- U.S. Battleships
- A Day of Infamy
- Japanese Striking Force
- Operation Z
- Attack in Numbers
- War Diary
- Photo Vault
- After 76 Years
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Use With Any Curriculum
These worksheets have been specifically designed for use with any international curriculum. You can use these worksheets as-is, or edit them using Google Slides to make them more specific to your own student ability levels and curriculum standards.